flange is the part connected between shaft and shaft, it is used for the connection of the pipes, and also the flanges can be used on the entrance and exit of the machine for the connection of two machines, such as the reduction gears flange.
All flanges, discussed on this website fall under the ASME en ASTM standards, unless otherwise indicated. ASME B16.5 describes dimensions, dimensional tolerances etc. and ASTM the different material qualities.
Each flange ASME B16.5 has a number of standard dimensions. If a draftsman in Japan or a work preparer in Canada or a pipefitter in Australia is speaking about a Welding Neck flange NPS 6, Class 150, Schedule 40 ASME B16.5, then it goes over the flange which in the image here below is shown.
If the flange is ordered, the supplier want to know the material quality. For example ASTM A105 is a forged carbon steel flange, while A182 is a forged stainless steel flange.
A bolted flange connection is a complex combination of many factors (Flange, Bolts, Gaskets, Process, Temperature, Pressure, Medium). All these various elements are interrelated and depend upon one another to achieve a successful result.
The reliability of the flanged joint depends critically upon competent control of the joint making process.